Glenmorangie Est 1843 is Gaelic for the "Valley of Tranquility" & was a brewery before distillery. Located in the Northern Highlands north of Inverness.
Cardhu Est 1824 is Gaelic for "Black Rock"; original name was Cardow. Also is the base whisky for Johnnie Walker. Located in Speyside.
Balblair Est 1790 is Gaelic for "The Battlefield" also; one of Scotland's oldest active distilleries. Located in the Northern Highlands; north of Inverness.
Glenkinchie Est 1825. “Kinchie” is derived from “de Quincey” which where the original owners of the land. Located in the Lowlands just east of Edinburgh.
Cragganmore Est 1869 is Gaelic for "Great Rock"; only the lightest vapors pass through their special T-neck stills. Located in Speyside.
Tomintoul Est 1964 is Gaelic for the "The Hill of the Barn". Located in Speyside.
Tomatin Est 1897 is Gaelic for "Hill of the Juniper". Located in the Highlands just south of Inverness.
Tullibardine is Gaelic for "Lookout Hill"; first as a brewery in 1488 & then Distillery in 1947 Located in the southern Highlands near Stirling.
Glendronach Est 1826 is Gaelic for the "Valley of the Brambles" (Blackberries). Located in the Eastern Highlands just outside Speyside.
Laphroaig Est 1815 is Gaelic "For the Beautiful Hollow by the Broad Bay". They were distilling 9 years before Scotch whisky became legal in 1824. Located on the South Shore of Islay.
Ø Blair Atholl in Bells
Ø Cardhu in Johnnie Walker
Ø Clynelish in Johnnie Walker
Ø Talisker in Johnnie Walker
Ø Caol Ila in Johnnie Walker
Ø Glen Ord in Johnnie Walker
Ø Mortlach in Johnnie Walker
Ø Royal Lochnagar in Johnnie Walker
Ø Glendullan in Johnnie Walker
Ø Teaninich in Johnnie Walker
Ø Benrinnes in Johnnie Walker
Ø Dailuaine in Johnnie Walker
Ø Mannochmore in Johnnie Walker
Ø Glenlossie in Johnnie Walker
Ø Cragganmore in Johnnie Walker
Ø Cragganmore in Old Parr
Ø Cragganmore in White Horse
Ø Glen Elgin in White Horse
Ø Craigellachie in White Horse
Ø Craigellachie in Dewars
Ø Aberfeldy in Dewars
Ø Royal Brackla in Dewars
Ø Knockando in J&B
Ø Strathmill in J&B
Ø Glenkinchie in Pinch
Ø Glenkinchie in Haig & Haig
Ø Dalmore in Whyte & Mackay
Ø Dalwhinnie in Buchanan's
Ø Strathisla in Chivas
Ø Laphroaig in Chivas
Ø Glen Burgie in Ballantine's
Ø Scapa in Ballantine's
Ø Glentauchers in Ballantine's
Ø Glentauchers in Teacher's
Ø Glendronach in Ballantine's
Ø Glendronach in Teacher's
Ø Ardmore in Teacher's
Ø Glen Rothes in Cutty Sark
Ø Glenturret in Famous Grouse
Ø Highland Park in Famous Grouse
Ø Macallan in Famous Grouse
Ø Old Pulteney in Hankey Bannister
Ø Balblair in Hankey Bannister
Ø Ancnoc in Hankey Bannister
Ø Speyburn in Hankey Bannister
Ø Balmenach in Hankey Bannister
Ø Tomore in Long John
Ø Deanston in Scottish Leader
Ø Deanston in Black Bottle
Ø Bunnabahain in Black Bottle
Ø Tomatin in Antiquary
Ø Tomatin in Talisman
Posted last fall on the Society of Wine Educators website
Impersonal – that’s how I would describe most of the distilleries in the world. However, the opposite is true for the distilleries located in Scotland. Do other regions and countries have long and just as distinguished history in producing distilled spirits? – Yes; but I feel that for the romance and the mythology, there are none like the Scotch whisky distilleries.
Rugged, rustic, and remote outposts describe most of Scotland’s distilleries in operation today, not one alike and all unique. Scotland’s unique, complicated, eco-system produces exceptional, tradition-rich whiskies. Due to this environment, Scotch whisky is among the most diverse spirits in the world.
Since the mid 1800’s, the debate among whisky drinkers has been which type of Scotch whisky is the complete spirit – single malts or blends? Single malts epitomize the distilleries signature as to what can be produced at a single distillery, while the blended whiskies style come from the vision of the Blending Houses.
To be classified as a single malt Scotch, these requirements must be met; distilled from 100% malted barley, a product of one distillery, produced exclusively in Scotland, aged a minimum of 3 years in oak barrels, and placed into the bottle at no less than 80 proof or 40 alcohol by volume. Single Malt Scotch has three basic ingredients; malted barley, water and yeast with the color coming from the oak during maturation.
Blended Scotch will come from whisky produced at many distilleries with the majority (average 60%) being distilled from various grains such as unmalted barley, maize, and wheat. The grain whisky in the blend must be aged a minimum of three years and aged to the label year, if the blend carries an age. The remainder of the blend will contain, on average, approximately 35 to 40 single malts.
Blended Scotch of higher quality and price will carry a higher concentration of single malts in the blend. Blends on the opposite end of the scale will carry more grain bringing the quality and price down. The blender wants their whisky to be consistent for their loyal consumers. For this reason, they strive to produce a whisky which has a distinguishable quality and characteristic.
Many Scotch whisky distilleries are located in the mountains or glens, near rivers, lochs, or along the coast. The four seasons and weather in the areas will affect the barley, fermentation, distillation, and maturation at the distillery. During maturation the oak barrels and casks “breathe” the local air simply because the barrels are watertight but not air tight. For example, whisky aged in warehouses by the sea will pick up definite maritime qualities, therefore affecting the finished whisky and giving it the signature from that specific region.
There are five steps to a finished product: malting, mashing, fermentation, distillation, and maturation.
MALTING: Barley is germinated during this step, converting the starches into fermentable sugars. It is then arrested by drying the barley in a kiln, usually over a peat fire, for 24 – 36 hours. The longer in the kiln, the more smoke influence in the finished product. Peat is simply decomposed plant life, usually heather. Before being used in the kiln, the peat is pressed and dried.
MASHING: The dried grain, now known as malt, is milled into a coarse flour called grist. The grist is then mixed with hot water in a mash-tun where the conversion of starch into sugar is completed. This sugary liquid is now known as wort. The wort is next transferred into huge vats (washbacks) for fermentation.
FERMENTATION: Yeast (unique to each distillery) is added to wort. The sugars in the wort are converted into a low-proof alcohol known as wash. This process takes 48 – 72 hours (average), some distilleries fermentation cycles are lower or higher.
DISTILLATION: The Wash is put in copper pot stills and distilled twice. The first distillation is the wash still with the spirit vaporizing, condensing to produce low wines. The second distillation in the spirit still consists of three cuts; only the middle- the heart- of the run is pure enough for maturation. The usable spirit is called “new make spirit” and sent on for maturation.
MATURATION: The new make spirit is aged in oak barrels or casks for a minimum of three years and starts to pick up its color and flavor profile. A ten-year maturation or longer period is typical for single malts of high quality. During aging, 1% – 3% of the spirit will evaporate each year; this is simply known as the “angel’s share”. Oak barrels or casks play a significant role during maturation; as much as 60% of the whisky’s flavor comes from the wood influence. Some distilleries use only sherry casks in their maturation process; however the vast majority will use used bourbon or Tennessee whiskey barrels since bourbon and Tennessee whiskey can only be produced in new charred oak barrels.
The Scots in the whisky industry are highly dedicated to their heritage, passionate about quality and committed to excellence. All of this magic is fused from three basic ingredients, time, place, and environment.
Slainte Mhath! (pronounced Slan-Je-Va) – meaning “good health to yours” in Gaelic.
Scotch whisky – Blends and Single Malts – Country of origin is exclusively Scotland. The Distilleries style, cereal grains used (Single Malts must be distilled from 100% malted barley and Blends are a combination of various cereal grains) and steps to a finished product are crucial in identifying the differences.
Each of the 109 operating distilleries have their own unique traits due to its location and techniques = TIME / PLACE / ENVIRONMENT plays the vital role.
The single malts are the most natural of spirits, formed more than any other by their surrounding environment. Therefore, they are very individualistic and most complex of all distilled spirits.
Even the same single malt may evolve differently in character with age and strength according to the type of wood in which it has come to maturity.
Single Malt Scotch and Blended Scotch are as complex, edgy, have the heritage, mystic and appellations as their wine cousins.
Wine drinkers (who drink distilled spirits) and Scotch drinkers are generally the same consumer and demographic.
All Scotch is Whisky, but not all Whisky is Scotch.
Country of origin is exclusively Mexico within 5 specific States. The Distilleries style, location (Highlands or Valley floor) and steps to a finished product are crucial in identifying the differences.
Each distillery will have their own unique traits due to location and techniques whether it's 100% Weber Blue Agave Silver, Reposado, Anejo or Extra Anejo.
Example – Anejo (Aged) Tequila may evolve differently in character and strength due to the type of wood in which it has come to mature.